The Paris Agreement, drawn up for two weeks in Paris at the 21st United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and adopted on 12 December 2015 marked a historic turning point in the fight against global climate change, as world leaders representing 195 nations agreed on an agreement containing commitments from all countries to combat climate change and adapt to its impact. The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments. The origin of the 1.5oC Paris Agreement stems from the concern of vulnerable countries about the negative consequences of a warming of 2oC. In 2014, the UNFCCC established a process to determine whether Cancun`s long-term goal of keeping warming below 2 degrees Celsius is sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change and to consider “strengthening the long-term global goal based on the best available scientific knowledge, including an average global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius.” This process ended in 2015 with the final report of its scientific arm (Structured Expert Dialogue), which concluded that the use of the global warming limit of 2oC as a “protection barrier” was not safe and that governments should instead aim for 1.5 degrees Celsius. It was found that the 2oC limit was not in line with the convention`s ultimate goal of “preventing dangerous anthropogenic intervention in the climate system.” This was an important contribution to the ongoing negotiations on the Paris Agreement at the time and ultimately led to the long-term goal of the Paris Agreement on temperature in Article 2.1, as described above. Once scientists have defined “pre-industrial,” the next step is to calculate warming at a given time relative to that reference period. This report defines warming as the increase in the global average over 30 years in the combined air temperature per land and the temperature of water at the sea surface.
The 30-year-old is responsible for the effects of natural variability, which can cause global temperatures to vary from year to year. For example, in 2015 and 2016, both were affected by a strong El Nio event, which reinforced the underlying human warming. The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to commitments that belong exclusively to the other and there was concern that there was a disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  In the 2009 Copenhagen Agreement, the long-term goal of temperature is to limit the increase in global temperature to “less than 2 degrees Celsius” (UNFCCC 2010).